Wednesday, 1 June 2016

Arain Tribe.

The Arain are a Muslim tribe, who are found mainly in the Punjab province and also that of Sindh. They are chiefly associated with farming, and the legal profession, with some being zamindars (landlords).

The Arains are historically exclusively Muslim. Their origins are uncertain, with some members of the community claiming a connection with the Rajputs. Others, with whom the historian and political scientist Christophe Jaffrelot agrees, believe that they are probably displaced farming communities who moved to Punjab from Sindh and Multan as Muslim armies encroached. Jaffrelot also believes the community to be related to the Kamboj.

Ishtiaq Ahmed, who is a political scientist like Jaffrelot and also a member of the Arain community, acknowledges that some early Arain texts ascribe a Persian origin and others a Suryavansha Rajput descent. He says that the modern-day Arain claims to be of Arab descent are based on the community's uniform belief in Islam and almost-entire adherence to the Sunni sect of that religion, which is a trait they share with the early Arab invaders under Muhammad bin Qasim. Ishtiaq Ahmed says that "The Arab-origin claim can be simply a re-orientation towards a (perceived) greater status as conquerors and 'original' Muslims" and that he personally thinks that "like the other farming castes of the Punjab and Haryana the Arains are a mix of many ethnies [sic] and races."

A study of blood types, published in 2005 and intended "to find out the frequency of ABO and RhD phenotypes in different ethnic groups and casts of Pakistan", concluded that "There is no statistically significant difference of ABO and Rh-D distribution among various ethnic groups and casts, O is the most common blood group except in Arains where B is the most common and O is less common. Further ethnic based studies are required to confirm."

British Raj period.

The British considered the Arain 'agricultural' caste. When the British wanted land developed in the Punjab after its annexation, Arain were brought in to cultivate lands around the cities, and were preferred to assist with the opening up of the new agrarian frontier in canal colonies of the Punjab between 1906 – 1940. The Arain received 86% of the land that was allotted to Muslim agricultural castes in canal colonies.

The British considered the Arain the best cultivators amongst all the castes, and were favoured for their "hard work, frugality and sense of discipline".

Subsequent development of towns and cities and increasing urbanisation resulted in the value of the land settled by Arain to rise significantly, and Arain families thus flourished. Education was prioritised with the new-found wealth and the Arain came to dominate the legal profession amongst urban Punjabi Muslims. Many used law to enter politics.

The Arain also contributed to military service predating and during British rule in India. Lt. Col. J. M. Wikeley acknowledged Arain presence in the military; "They (Arains) may be designated as a fighting race which has produced many Civil and Military officers who have rendered good services to the nation.". Their lack of classification as a martial race was most probably a consequence of rebellions against British rule. One notable rebellion occurred in the Mutiny of 1857, when the Arain Shah Abdul Qadir Ludhianvi led an inter-communal uprising in Ludhiana against the British East India Company.

Present day.

Although gardening and market-gardening were considered historically to be ritually impure occupations and thus those engaged in such activities were considered to be of low standing, the Arains have proven to be industrious and disciplined practitioners. In the present day, they are the largest agricultural community in Pakistan and they often have a wealth that belies their low ritual status.

Distribution.

The Arain were found in territory stretching from the Chenab in the west to the Sultlej in the east, in what was the Punjabi speaking heartland of the British colonial province of Punjab. This was also the region that suffered the worst violence during the partition of India in 1947, with almost the entire Arain population of Indian Punjab migrating to Pakistani territory. However, there are still a small number of Muslim Arains still found in Malerkotla, Sangrur and Patiala districts.

The bulk of the Arain population is now settled in the districts of Faisalabad, Sahiwal and Toba Tek Singh, with a large number of refugees settled by the Thal Development Authority in the districts of Khushab, Mianwali, Bhakkar and Layyah.

Related communities in North India.

There are a number of communities in North India, that claim kinship with the Arain of Punjab. The Arain of Delhi claim to be descended from Arains who settled in Delhi during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Akbar.

Another community that is connected with the Arain are the Rayeen, who are a Muslim tribe found in Bareilly, Pilibhit, Udham Singh Nagar, Nainital, Rampur, Bijnor and Saharanpur districts of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Notable people.

Adina Beg, Governor of Punjab in 1758.

Mian Fakir Aziz - Foreign Minister of Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh.

Maher Muhkum Din - Governor of Lahore During Sikh Raj.

Maulana Jafar Thansari - One of the few Real Freedom Fighters to have Challenged the British Colonial Rule in India.

Shah Abdul Qadir Ludhianvi - A Freedom Fighter in 1857, His Army drove the British out of Ludhiana and Panipat, but he was defeated and killed in Delhi.

Mian Family Baghbanpura a famous old Arain family of Lahore.

POLITICIANS

Mian Fazli Husain, politician and a founder of the Unionist Party.

Mian Sir Muhammad Shahnawaz - An influential politician of the punjab in1020s.

Begum Jahan Ara Shahnawaz - Daughter of Sir Mian Muhammad shafi and Wife of Sir Mian Muhammad Shah Nawaz. In 1935 She Formed Punjab Provincial Muslim Women's League. She was Elected a Member of Punjab Legislative Assembly in 1937. She was also elected as a Member of Constituent Assembly of India.

Mian Abdul Bari - A Freedom Fighter, Member of Punjab Assembly and National Assembly from Lyallpur present Faisalabad.

Mian Iftikharuddin - Congress Party member and later member of the Muslim League under Mohammed Ali Jinnah, landlord and founder of the Imroze and Pakistan Times Newspapers.

Chaudhry Muhammad Ali - Fourth Prime Minister of Pakistan.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto - Fourth President of Pakistan (1971 to 1973) and ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan (1973 to 1977).

Benazir Bhutto - First Female Prime Minister of a Muslim Countries, Two time Prime Minister of Pakistan.

Sardar Mumtaz Ali Bhutto - 8th Governor and Chief Minister of Sindh.

Mohammad Hanif Ramay - Former Governor and Chief Minister of Punjab Pakistan.

Mian Muhammad Azhar - Former Governor of Punjab, Mayor of Lahore and Member of National Assembly.

Chaudhry Muhammad Sarwar, First Muslim Member of British Parliament and Governor of Punjab.

Muhammad Abdullah - Ex Governor of Gilgit.

Sardar Aseef Ahmad Ali - Former Foreign Minister of Pakistan, His father Sardar Ahmad Ali and Uncle Sardar Muhammad Hussain were also Members of Parliment from Qasur Punjab.

Mian Zahid Sarfraz - Former Interior Minister of Pakistan.

Mian Raza Rabbani - Former Leader of the House in Senate and Minister of Law and Justice.

Aziz Ahmad - Former Foreign Minister of Pakistan.

Samina Khalid Ghurki - Federal Minister of Social Welfare and Special Education, Her Husband Khalid Javed Ghurki was also Member of Parliament and Nazim of Wahga.

Jahangir Badar - Senator, Ex Federal Minister and Secretary General of PPP.

Shafiq Arain - Former Minister and Member of Parliament in Uganda and UN Ambassador for East Africa.

Khalid Anwer - Ex Federal Minister of law and Justice of Pakistan.

Mian Shamim Haider - Former Federal Minister of Railways and Sports.

Aijaz-ul-Huq - Ex Federal Minister and Member of National Assembly.

Mian Amir Mehmood - Ex Mayor of Lahore Pakistan and Owner of Dunya News.

Mian Shuja-ur-Rahman - Former Lord Mayor of Lahore.

ARMED FORCES.

General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq - The sixth President of Pakistan (Chief of Staff Pakistan Army)

Lt General Salim Ahmad Mian - Sitara-e-Qaide-Azam.

Lt General Mian Muhammad Afzal - Chief of General Staff Pak Army.

Lt General Faiz Ali Chishti - X-Corps Commander of Pakistan Army 1974 to 1980.

Lt General Naseer Akhtar - X-Corps Commander of Pakistan.

Lt General Ghulam Mustafa - Ex-Corps Commander and Incharge Strategic Command of Pakistan.

Mian Qadir Buksh Nadir - Artillery Commander, author of, "Muftah-ul-Qila" (Persian text book on science of gunnery in 18th century).

Admiral Muhammad Afzal Tahir - Pakistan's Chief of Naval Staff.

Vice Admiral Ahmed Tasnim - The only Navy officer of Pakistan who has been Awarded Sitara-e-Jurat Twice.

Admiral Haji Muhammad Saddiq Chaudhry - The First Pakistani Navy Commander In Chief.

Vice Admiral Farooq Rashid - Chief of Staff Pakistan Navy (2004-05) Rector Bahria University (2006-09).

Air Marshal Zafar Ahmed Chaudhry - First Chief of Pakistan Air Force.

JUSTICES/ATTORNEY GENERALS

Sir Mian Muhammad Shafi - Member of Viceroy's Executive Council.

Justice Sir Mian Abdur Rasheed - First Chief Justice of Pakistan.

Justice Mian Saqib Nisar - Supreme Court of Pakistan.

Justice Khalil-ur-Rehman Ramday - Judge of Supreme Court of Pakistan. He is the Son of Justice Muhammad Saddique, Brother of Chaudhry Muhammad Farooq - Ex Attorney General of Pakistan and Chaudhry Asad-ur-Rehman Ex Federal Minister.He is also Uncle of Brigadier Anwar-ul-Haq Ramday Shaheed.
Malik Mohammad Qayyum - Former Attorney General of Pakistan.

Chaudhry Muhammad Farooq - Former Attorney General of Pakistan

Mian Asrar-ul-Haq - President Supreme Court Bar of Pakistan.

Chaudhry Shehram Sarwar - President of High Court Bar Association.

Mian Abdul Qadus - Ex President of High Court Bar Association.

GOVERNMENT EXECUTIVES

Qudrat Ullah Shahab - Former Pakistani Ambassador to the Netherlands and His Father was the Governoer of Gilgit during Dogra Rule.
                 
Shahid Hafiz Kardar - Governor of State Bank of Pakistan.

Dr Muhammad Yaqub - Former Governor State Bank of Pakistan 1993-1999.

Anwar Ali - Chairman Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission.

Pro Dr Zafar Altaf - Chairman PARC.

Mian Muhammad Sharif - Surveyor General of Pakistan.

Ch. Zulfiqar Ahmed - Ex. Chaiman CBR., Islamabad.

SPORTS PERSONS

Muhammad Asif World Snooker Champion.

Wasim Akram - Ex Captain of Pakistan Cricket Team, King of Swing.

Imran Nazir - A Pakistani Cricket Player.

Abdul Razzaq - A Famouse Pakistani Cricketer.

Abdul Hafeez Kardar - First Captain of Pakistan Cricket Team, Former Minister of Punjab and Pakistan's Ambassador to Switzerland.

Saleem Elahi - Pakistani Cricket Player. His Brothers Manzoor Elahi and Zahoor Elahi also Played for Pakistan.

Sarfraz Nawaz Malik - Former Fast Bowler and Member of Punjab Assembly.

Mian Mohammad Saeed - Ex Captain of Pakistan Cricket Team.

Mian Muhammad Aslam - Cricketer and Test Umpire.

Shehbaz Ahmad - Ex Captain of Pakistan Hockey Team.

Tahir Zaman - Ex Captain of Pakistan Hockey Team.

Waseem Ahmed - Famous Pakistani Hockey Player.

ENTERTAINMENT MEDIA

Sultan Rahi - Famouse Punjabi Film Star.

Habeeb - Film Star.

Tariq Aziz - Film and Tv Star and Ex Member of National Assembly.

Mian Farzand Ali - Owner of Laki Irani Circus

Naseem Viky - Famouse Stage Actor.

WRITER

Nasim Hijazi - Famouse Urdu Writer of Islamic History Novels.

Zia Shahid - Ex Senator and Owner of Khabrain Group.

Mujeeb-ur-Rehman Shami - Owner of Daily Pakistan News.

SUFI SAINTS

Shah Inayat Qadri - A famous Sufi of the Qadiri order, who was the spiritual leader of Punjabi poets and saints Baba Bulleh Shah and Waris Shah.

Mian Sher Muhammad Sharaqpuri - Great sufi and spiritual leader of india.

Mian Sahib of Nankana Sahib - Great Sufi and Spiritual Healer Having Followers Around the World.