Wednesday, 31 August 2016

Bahawalpur State and Daudpota Abbasi's.

The Daudpota Abbasi's are Arabic origin and descent from Abbas, the progenitor of the Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad and Cairo. The exodus of the Abbasides nobles of Egypt to India had started in the reign of Muhammad Taughlak_bin_Ghiasuddin. This Taughlak emperor of India recognized the Abbassides Caliph, Abdul Abbas_Al_Hakim in Egypt and accepted his spiritual leadership. He even got the name of the caliph inscribed on the Indian coinage of his reign.

In 1366 A.D Amir Sultan Ahmed 11, Abbasi, fiftieth direct descendant from Abdul Qasim Ahmed (the first Abbasid Caliph ruled in Egypt ) migrated to India with his family and a few hundred of followers entered into South through Baluchistan and settled down in Sindh. He married a daughter of Raja Rai Dhorang Sahta, receiving a third of the country in dowry.

Amir Fathu'llah Khan Abbasi is the recognized ancestor of the dynasty. He conquered the bhangar territory from Raja Dallu of Alor and Bhamanabad, renaming it Qahir Bela. Those Arabs who had already settled in Sindh rallied round the Amir. In the course of time, the Amir's family gradually moved northward losing much to the ruler of Jaisalmer.

Amir Bahadur Khan Abbasi, the chief of Daudpota then came to power, he and his descendants wielded small principalities in Bahawalpur state into a 
united kingdom. Daud Khan was the first person in his family to rule Bahawalpur. Daud Khan was originated from Sindh, where he had opposed the Afghan Governor of that province and was forced to flee.

In 1540, Duddees, a well-known tribe rose to considerable power in the eastern part of Bahawalpur. Amir Muhammad Chani Khan Abbasi entered the imperial service and gained appointment as a Panchhazari in 1583 by Prince Murad (the son of emperor Akbar Khan the Great). At his death, the leadership of the tribe was contested between two branches of the family, the Daudpota's and the Kalhoras.

After the death of Amir Mohammad Channi Khan, quarrels arose between the two sections of Abbasis, the Kalhora and Daudpota tribes. The Arab tribes settled in Bahawalpur, sided with the latter that were destined to create and rule the 
Bahawalpur state.

Amir Muhammad Mubarik Khan 1, Abbasi who came to the power in 1702, was an able commander and leader. Throughout his reign, he had to fight many battles against Kalhoras. He abdicated in 1723 A.D in favor of his son, Sadiq Mohammad Khan 1, who was killed in battle with Khuda Yar Kalhora.

Amir Mohammad Bahawalpur Khan 1, (1746-1949) ascended the throne in 1746. During his short rule, he built the towns of Bahawalpur, Qaimpur, Hasilpur, Tranda Ali Murad Khan, Shabazpur and Mohammadpur Lamman. During his reign, three canals namely Khan Wah, Qutab Wah and Wahi Qaider Dina were dug. As a result, the agriculture of the state improved considerably and the people became prosperous.

Amir Muhammad Mubarik Khan 11 Abbasi (1749-1772) succeeded Amir Muhammed Bahawal Khan 1 Abbasi. In 1750, he captured Marot, Jaisalmer, and Madwala and its dependencies west of the Sutlej and Panjnad, now part of Muzaffargarh district from Nahrs. Bet Doma territory which belonged to Makhdum Sheikh Raju of Sitpur was also conquered. Later a part of the country including the important towns of Dunyapur and Kahror were occupied.

In 1776, the Sikhs confederate jhanda Singh, Ganda Singh and Hari Singh invaded the Amir's trans-Sutlej territories but were repulsed. Pakpattan was fixed as the boundary between Bahawalpur and the Sikh state.

Amir Mohammad Mubarak Khan 11 Abbasi was an able administrator and a powerful ruler. He took a keen interest in building his army. Many of the forts on the border of the state were built during his reign. He kept the Sikhs in check. Many canals on which the prosperity of the district depended were constructed during his time.

Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan II, Abbasi succeeded him and ruled from 1772 to 1809 A.D. He assumed the title of Muhammad Bahawal Khan II.

From 1785 to 1788, Amir had to encounter Taimur Shah, the powerful Durrani monarch of Kabul. Bahawalpur was plundered by Durranis, the town was burnt and destroyed. The 
Fort Derawar was also occupied and Taimur Shah garrisoned it with troops under his general Shah Muhammad Khan Badozai, but eventually, the Amir drove out the Durranis after fighting many fierce battles.

In 1802 Shah Muhammad of Kabul sent a valuable Khilat and title of Mukhlis-ud-Daudla. A mint was started at 
Bahawalpur in 1802, where gold, silver and copper coins were made.

After Muhammad Bahawal Khan 11, Prince Abdullah Khan under the title of Sadiq Muhammad Khan II (1809-1825) was proclaimed Amir of 
Bahawalpur. The greater part of his reign passed in repelling the attacks of the Amirs of Sindh, in suppressing the rebellions of his own Umaras and protecting his conquered territories.

On the death of Amir Sadiq Mohammad Khan II in 1825 A.D, Amir Bahawal Khan III ascended the throne in 1825 at Derawar. He ruled from 1825-1852 A.D. On his accession to the throne Amir sent presents to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Maharaja also sent his congratulations and some presents to Amir.

As some dues for the lease of Dera Ghazi Khan had not been paid for several years, Maharaja Ranjit Singh sent a force under General Ventura to expel the governor, appointed there by the Amir of Bahawalpur, without giving him an opportunity for parley.

General Ventura occupied Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, and Multan, and they thus passed from the rule of the state. The Amir was very upset at this loss. Alliance with neighboring states Sindh, 
Bikaner or Jaisalmer were out of the question for they were already hostile to Bahawalpur.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh sent a large force under Sham Singh Atariwala to Kahoror to invade the state on any pretext. Thereupon the Amir sent an envoy to the British Governor General at Simla to invoke his intervention. Lord William Bentinck, the British Governor General, accepted the proposal and Maharaja Ranjit Singh was warned not to cross the Sutlej.

In 1833 Nawab negotiated a treaty of friendship and alliance with the British. In 1842 Parganas of Kot Sabzal and Ghung Bhara lost by the state, in 1807 were conquered by the British from the Mirs of Sindh and resorted to Bahawalpur state by Sir Charles Napier.

In 1848 the Amir of 
Bahawalpur assisted the British in the battle of Multan. As a result of Bahawalpur-British alliance, Multan fell and was made part of the British Indian territory.

On the death of Amir Bahawal Khan III, Sadiq Mohammad Khan III, (1852-1853 ) was crowned as Amir. On assuming rule, he confined prince Haji Khan and his brothers and treated them harshly. A large number of the Bahawalpur army was demobilized. All the grants, rights and claims of Daudpotas and other usual expenses were diminished and abolished. These events made the Amir unpopular.

On the 29th of Rabi-ul-Sani, 1269 A.H, Fateh Garh Fort was attacked at night. Prince Haji Khan who was kept as a prisoner was freed and brought to Khanpur. Haji Khan entered Ahmedpur East without any resistance and Sadiq Muhammad Khan 111 was imprisoned. Prince Rahim Yar Khan succeeded his father, the late Amir Fateh Khan Abbasi, as Muhammad Bahawal Khan IV ( 1858-1866 ). He was poisoned and died on 
the 25th March 1866.

On the death of Bahawal Khan IV, Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV was crowned when he was four and half years old. He was installed in 1879 when he attained maturity. In the interim period from 1866 to 1879, British Officers supervised the state.

The first treaty between Bahawalpur and the British government was affected in 1883. The Nawab entered into Treaty relations with the HEIC, 22nd February 1833. which remained in force until the August 14th, 1947. The state acceded to the Dominion of Pakistan on 7th October 1947 and was merged into the state of West Pakistan on 14th October 1955.

Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan V, the next successor was about 16 years of age at the time of his father's death in 1907. He was then a child of three years old. He ruled the state till 1955 when it was integrated into the Punjab province of Pakistan.