Sunday, 15 October 2017

پاکستان میں مارشل لاء کے نفاذ کی صورت میں 4 کام کرنے پڑنے ھیں۔

پاکستان میں مارشل لاء کے نفاذ کی صورت میں فوجی حکومت کو 4 کام کرنے پڑنے ھیں؛

1۔ وفاقی ' صوبائی اور مقامی حکومتوں کے ملازمین کی کارکردگی کا معیار بہتر کرکے عوام کو عزت و انصاف دلوانا۔ (یہ کام مارشل لاء کے نفاذ کے 3 ماہ کے اندر اندر کرنا ھوگا)

2۔ وفاقی ' صوبائی اور مقامی سطح پر تعمیراتی اور ترقیاتی امور کو بہتر انداز میں انجام دینا۔ (یہ کام مارشل لاء کے نفاذ کے 6 ماہ کے اندر اندر کرنا ھوگا)

3۔ عوام کو با عزت روزگار اور کاروبار کے مواقع فراھم کرنا۔ (یہ کام مارشل لاء کے نفاذ کے 9 ماہ کے اندر اندر کرنا ھوگا)

4۔ عوام میں موجود لسانی ' نسلی ' علاقائی ' فرقہ ورانہ اختلافات کو ختم کروانا۔ (یہ کام مارشل لاء کے نفاذ کے 12 ماہ کے اندر اندر کرنا ھوگا)

پاکستان میں مارشل لاء کے نفاذ کی صورت میں فوجی حکومت اگر درجہ بالا 4 کام نہ کرسکی تو ن لیگ نے پہلے سے زیادہ منظم اور مظبوط ھوکر عوام کی مزید حمایت حاصل کرلینی ھے۔ جبکہ؛

1۔ وفاقی ' صوبائی اور مقامی حکومتوں کے ملازمین کی کارکردگی کا معیار بہتر کرکے عوام کو عزت و انصاف نہ دلوانے سے عوام میں فوجی حکومت کے ظلم اور زیادتیوں کا احساس پیدا ھونا شروع ھو جانا ھے۔

2۔ وفاقی ' صوبائی اور مقامی سطح پر تعمیراتی اور ترقیاتی امور بہتر انداز میں انجام نہ پانے کی وجہ سے عوامی مسائل مزید پیچیدہ ھو جانے ھیں۔

3۔ عوام کو با عزت روزگار اور کاروبار کے مواقع فراھم نہ کرنے سے عوام میں بے روزگاری اور کاروباری کسمپسری میں مزید اضافہ ھو جانا ھے۔

4۔ عوام میں موجود لسانی ' نسلی ' علاقائی ' فرقہ ورانہ اختلافات کو ختم نہ کروانے سے عوام میں موجود لسانی ' نسلی ' علاقائی ' فرقہ ورانہ اختلافات نے مزید فروغ پا لینا ھے۔

Muslim Punjabi's Were Hanging To Relocate Their Ideology.

Mulla, Pundut, Padri always had the same mindset and it will remain but Punjabi's, the followers of Sofi Saints, always remained out from their conspiracies. However, Religious propagation in India was a tool for division of India to control the governance and establishment by the UP-ite Hindi speaking Hindus and UP-ite Urdu speaking Muslims. They succeeded and Religion became a political stunt for domination of UP-ite Hindi speaking Hindus in India and UP-ite Urdu speaking Muslims in Pakistan.

As for Muslim Punjabi is concerned, due to the trauma of division of Punjab with the massacre of 2 million Punjabis and displacement of 20 million Punjabis, Pakistani Punjabi's were hanging to relocate their ideology, however, now Pakistani Punjabi's are on the way of “Pakistani Punjabi nationalism” in conjunction with original and actual entities of Pakistan i.e. Sindh, Baloch and Pukhtoon nations.

After the partition of India, Urdu Speaking Muslims of UP, CP called as Hindustani's, captured Pakistan for their conspiracies and original nations of Pakistan i.e; Punjabi, Sindhi, Bloch, Pathan were facing their conspiracies from 70 years.

Whereas, Gunga Jumna Culture and traditions, Hindi Speaking Hindus of UP, CP are dominating the India and Telgu nation, Tamil nation, Kannadiga nation, Marathi nation, Gujarati nation, Bhojpuri nation, Rajasthani nation, Hindu Bengali, Hindu Punjabi, Sikh Punjabi of India are facing their conspiracies from 70 years.

Punjabi's on both sides were their main supporters in conspiracies. In India Hindu Punjabi's are supporters of conspiracies by the Hindi Speaking Hindus of UP, CP against other nations of India and in Pakistan Muslim Punjabi's were supporters of conspiracies by the Urdu Speaking Muslims of UP, CP against other nations of Pakistan.

At present, Muslim Punjabi's in Pakistan has traced the root of conspiracies against Pakistan and original nations of Pakistan, including the Punjabi nation too i.e; Urdu Speaking Muslim of UP, CP called as Hindustani's. Therefore, they are withdrawing their support to UP-ites, and Urdu, which they were providing to them due to trusting them that; they are true Muslims and patriotic Pakistanis and Urdu language would be the binding force between original entities of Pakistan i.e; Punjabi, Sindhi, Bloch, Pathan, but after a period of 70 years, it proved vise-verse.

In Pakistan "Punjabi Nation" was a social and political victim of Urdu language, Gunga Jamna Culture and UP-ite, traditions along with policy making and decision making by the "Urdu Speaking UP-ite, Muslims" and "UP-ite, mindset bureaucracy, establishment, media and politicians" in national and international affairs but, at present Punjabi's have total control over policy making and decision making of Pakistan, in national and international affairs with domination and supremacy in Political and Military leadership along with hegemony of Punjabis in foreign affairs services, military establishment, civil bureaucracy, agriculture sectors, industrial sectors, trade sectors, skilled professions, business institutions, media organisations, political parties and urban centers of Pakistan.

In Indian Punjab, "Punjabi Nation" is a social and political victim of Hindi language, Gunga Jamna Culture and UP-ite, traditions along with policy making and decision taking by "Hindi Speaking UP-ite, Hindus" and "UP-ite, mindset bureaucracy, establishment, media and politicians" in national and international affairs of Punjabi Nation.

Thursday, 12 October 2017

What will happen if China and Russia decide to Reunify Punjab?

Pakistan is a state of 97% Muslim people, but Pakistanis a heterogeneous state with Punjabi, Sammat, Brahvi, Hindko, Muhajir, Baloch, Pathan, Chitrali ethnic population. Not the only Pakistan but all the provinces of Pakistan are also heterogeneous due to the living of Pathan, Baloch, Muhajir in Punjab and the living of Punjabis in Sindh, Karachi, Baluchistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

As the Punjabis are also living in Sindh with Muslim Sammat and Muslim Sindhi-Baloch, in Karachi with Muslim Muhajir, in Baluchistan with Muslim Brahvi and Muslim Balochi, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with Muslim Hindko, Muslim Chitrali and Muslim Pathan, therefore, they played an important role to develop the economy of Sindh, Karachi, Baluchistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

From 1947, Muslim Punjabis of Punjab, Sindh, Karachi, Baluchistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are in struggle to defend the Pakistan from external enemies of Pakistan and to save the Pakistan from internal conspiracies of Muslim Muhajir, Muslim Baloch, Muslim Pathan with struggle to develop the Pakistan but the role of Muslim Muhajir, Muslim Baloch, Muslim Pathan is Anti-Punjabi by victimizing the Muslim Punjabis residing in Sindh, Karachi, Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Anti-Punjab by playing the Sindhi card, Muhajir card, Baloch card, Pathan card game against Punjab to destroy the Punjab with supporting the external enemies of Pakistan to disintegrate the Pakistan.

External enemies of Pakistan, especially India used the Muslim Muhajir, Muslim Baloch, Muslim Pathan as a proxy agent to disintegrate Pakistan by the ethnic proxy politics of Sindhudesh, Jinnahpur, Azad Baluchistan, Azad Pukhtoonistan, because of that, the Pakistanis had faced and still facing the social, economic and political disability.

Due to the ethnic proxy politics of India in Pakistan, the Muslim Punjabi in Sindh is a victim of Muslim Sindhi-Baloch, in Karachi is a victim of Muslim Muhajir, in Baluchistan is a victim of Muslim Baloch, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is a victim of Muslim Pathan. Thousands of Muslim Punjabis lost their lives and millions were displaced to Punjab by losing their business, properties, and wealth, but, the government of Pakistan and the Punjabis living in Punjab never bothered to look after the problems and grievances of Punjabis living in Sindh, Karachi, Baluchistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Punjabis living in Sindh defended and saved themselves by their own self from the harassment, injustice, and victimization of Muslim Sindhi-Baloch.

Punjabis living in Karachi defended and saved themselves by their own self from the harassment, injustice, and victimization of Muslim Muhajir.

Punjabis living in Baluchistan defended and saved themselves by their own self from the harassment, injustice, and victimization of Muslim Baloch.

Punjabis living in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa defended and saved themselves by their own self from the harassment, injustice, and victimization of Muslim Pathan.

It is a hypothesis that, if international players China and Russia decide to reunify the Punjab due to the ‘’Great Global Game of Communication and Energy Corridors‘’, to develop the Gwadar and to secure the “Pak-China Economic Corridor” passing through Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa then after reunification of Punjab, the Punjabi Hindu, and the Punjabi Sikh will prefer to invest and settle in the Baluchistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Karachi and Sindh for their better business and economic future.

As Baluchistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Karachi, and Sindh already has Punjabi presence with Anti-Baloch, Anti-Pathan, Anti-Muhajir sentiments, therefore, settlement of Punjabi Hindu and Punjabi Sikh will encourage, facilitate and motivate the Muslim Punjabi to boost the Punjabi nationalism for the unity of Muslim Punjabi, Hindu Punjabi, Sikh Punjabi, Christian Punjabi to compete with Muslim Muhajir, Muslim Baloch, Muslim Pathan for social, economic and Political domination of Punjabi in Baluchistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Karachi and Sindh.

As the actual and original inhabitants of Baluchistan are Brahvi, not the Kurdish background invaders of Brahvi land, called as Baloch, the actual and original inhabitants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are Hindko, not the Afghani background invaders of Hindko land, called as Pathan, the actual and original inhabitants of Karachi are Sammat, not the Hindustani background invaders of Sammat land, called as Muhajir, the actual and original inhabitants of Sindh are Sammat, not the Kurdish background invaders of Sammat land, called as Sindhi-Baloch, therefore, Brahvi, Hindko, and Sammat will also be in position to liberate themselves from the social, economic and political domination of Baloch, Pathan, and Muhajir with the support of Punjabi nation.

Tuesday, 10 October 2017

G. M. Syed presented Pakistan Resolution in the Sindh Assembly.

The Sindh assembly was the first British Indian legislature to pass the resolution in favor of Pakistan.

G. M. Syed, an influential Muslim activist and one of the important leaders to the forefront of the provincial autonomy movement in Sindh joined the Muslim League in 1938 and presented the Pakistan resolution in the Sindh Assembly. This text was buried under the Minar-e-Pakistan during its building in the Ayub regime.

In this session, the political situation was analyzed in detail and Muslim demands a separate homeland only to maintain their identity and to safeguard their rights.

Pakistan resolution was the landmark in the history of Muslim of south-Asia. It determined for the Muslims a true goal and their homeland in north-east and north-west.

The acceptance of the Pakistan resolution accelerated the pace of freedom movement. It gave new energy and courage to Muslim who gathered around Quaid-i-Azam for the struggle for freedom.

Monday, 9 October 2017

Punjab from 1839 A.D - 1849 A.D.

When Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in 1839 A.D, Kharak Singh, his eldest son became Maharaja. Kharak Singh was 50 years old at this time. He lacked the down to earth personality of his father. Kharak Singh was a heavy opium eater. He totally neglected state affairs and got himself immersed in wine, opium, and drinking. At this time Prime Minister was still Dhyan Singh. His son Naunihal Singh though was a favorite with the army. He fought in several battles and was posted as a Governor of North West Frontier Province at this time. Maharaja Ranjit Singh had earlier married Naunihal Singh with the daughter of Sardar Sham Singh Attariwala.

Dogra brothers, Dhyan Singh, Suchet Singh and Gulab Singh were in total control of administration at this time. Dhyan Singh's son Hira Singh was also a favorite of Maharaja Ranjit Singh just like Naunihal Singh (his own grandson). Maharaja had given him a title "Farzand-e-Khas", or "a special son". It was rumored that Dhyan Singh wanted Hira Singh, his son to become Maharaja of Punjab and thus he started his manipulations. Kharak Singh, the new maharaja did not trust Dogra brothers and started neglecting them. His mentor was one Chet Singh Bajwa who was also his childhood teacher. Kharak Singh started interfering with affairs concerning state, which was under the jurisdiction of Dogra brothers.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh had earlier looked after all matters himself and had only given some liberty to Dogra brothers while keeping them in check. Maharaja Ranjit Singh's ability to not trust anyone blindly played a major role in day to day administration of state affairs. Most of his courtiers were scared to do anything wrong. But during the time of Kharak Singh, everything was changed. Dogra suspected that Chet Singh was responsible for their removal from state affairs. Dogras brothers Gulab Singh and Suchet Singh got together and decided to remove Chet Singh Bajwa and then subdue Kharak Singh. One night when Chet Singh was sleeping in the same place where Maharaja Kharak Singh lived, Suchet Singh Dogra along with Gulab Singh entered the palace and hacked Chet Singh to pieces. Dogra brothers now changed servants of the palace and administer a slow poison (mercury) in food to Maharaja Kharak Singh. His son Naunihal Singh who suspected treachery of Dogras did not return to Lahore until Maharaja Kharak Singh died. All this time Dhyan Singh Dogra was faithful to the Maharaja Ranjit Singh's family.

Naunihal Singh came back to Lahore to fulfill his obligation to cremate the body of his father Maharaja Kharak Singh and as well as to become a new Maharaja. Dhyan Singh Dogra declared Naunihal Singh a new Maharaja. On the same day when the party was returning from cremation ground, a large block of concrete from Archway fell on top of Naunihal Singh. It is said that he was not hurt bad and was able to walk himself but still Gulab Singh Dogra insisted on getting a palki. Two days later Dhyan Singh Dogra declared that Naunihal Singh had died due to complications of his injury. Even Naunihal Singh's mother and wife were not allowed to meet him after injury. English doctor that operated on Naunihal Singh testified to British author Macauliffe that initially Naunihal Singh got some injury on head and he applied bandages but next day when he went to see Naunihal Singh his head was totally crushed and bandages were changed, he was not breathing. Dhyan Singh Dogra now proclaimed another son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh named Sher Singh as Maharaja of Punjab.

Sher Singh was very popular with the army; he was a good person but not a shrewd politician. His Chief Minister Dhyan Singh Dogra, a trusted friend of Maharaja Ranjit Singh was an intelligent minister, i.e. vazir. He could not sense a treachery by his brothers Suchet Singh and Gulab Singh. Meanwhile, Sandhawalia Sardars Ajit Singh, Lehna Singh and Attar Singh who had inimical relations with Sher Singh and Dhyan Singh Dogra, fearing them run away from Lahore and joined British. In Sher Singh, Punjab got a maharaja who was handsome, dandy and knew more about wine and women then state affairs. Two years later, Sandhanwalia brothers sent a letter to Maharaja Sher Singh that they wanted to return to their motherland. Sher Singh obliged and gave them permission to return to Punjab. It is widely believed that Dogra brothers Suchet Singh and Gulab Singh were behind Sandhanwalia's return from United Provinces. Sher Singh gave them good ranks in the army and it looked in the beginning as Sandhawalia brothers were pleased. Sher Singh had a ten years old son named Partap Singh. One day when Sher Singh was inspecting his troops, Ajit Singh Sandhawalia asked permission to show him how to fire a new gun he had got from British. Sher Singh allowed and Sandhawalia fired at him, Sher Singh could only say "aah ki Daga", "what treachery?." At the same time, Lehna Singh Sandhawalia killed Ten years old Partap Singh. Sher Singh had good relations with Dogra brothers as well as Khalsa Army. Dhyan Singh Dogra who was about a mile away when all this was happening reached there with 25 of his troops. Sandhawalia brothers Ajit Singh and Lehna Singh killed Dhyan Singh Dogra, cut his body into different pieces and hung all over Lahore City. Gulab Singh Dogra brother of Dhyan Singh Dogra along with Sarkar Khalsa attacked Sandhanwalia's citadel.

Sandhawalia brothers had got themselves shut in the fort with about 500 of their supporters. But enraged Khalsa Army attacked and killed both Sandhanwalia brothers on spot. While all this was going on, other Dogra Brother named Suchet Singh got 22 carts load of Khalsa treasury through the back door and transported it on its way to Batala and then subsequently to Jammu. Gulab Singh Dogra now openly supported making his son a Maharaja of Punjab. He even asked Maharani Chand Kaur, widow of Maharaja Ranjit Singh to adopt Hira Singh. Khalsa Army and other Sikh noblemen intervened and made the youngest son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, born of Maharani Jindan, and named Dilip Singh, a 5 years old boy, new Maharaja of Punjab with Hira Singh Dogra as new Prime Minister. A few days later, Maharani Chand Kaur was found murdered on her bed, her head crushed. It was suspected that Gulab Singh Dogra got her killed since she refused to adopt Hira Singh.

Peshaura Singh and Kashmira Singh, elder sons of Maharaja Ranjit Singh questioned the validity of 5-year-old Dilip Singh Maharaja of Punjab, but with any effect. Hira Singh appointed Tej Singh Dogra and Lal Singh Dogra as general of Khalsa army. So now, the command of Khalsa army was passed from Sikh generals to Hindu generals, only one Sikh general named Ranjodh Singh Majithia remained at the highest command level. Even though able generals like Sham Singh Attari were always there but never considered for top posts. It is believed that Dogra Brothers were responsible for appointing generals so that to keep negotiations open with British during the war, which increasingly was becoming inevitable. British forward post was in Ferozepur and then at Jalandhar and Ambala being other major cantonments. British requested Hira Singh to allow transport of Afghani women to Afghanistan through Punjab under Major Wolcroft. Hira Singh obliged and supplied some of the Punjabi troops for an escort. Major Wolcroft was a paranoid major and on more than one occasion he ordered his troops to fire at Punjabi troops. Later British Governor General apologized for his behavior.

Hira Singh Dogra and his advisor, one Brahmin named Jalla had the whole administration in their hands; Maharaja Dilip Singh was just a figurative head of state. Hira Singh uncle Suchet Singh Dogra did not like Jalla and asked for his removal. He came to Lahore along with his general Rai Kesari Singh and camped at the mausoleum of Mian Wadda, outside the city. Hira Singh Dogra was irked at the suggestion of his uncle for removal of Pundit Jalla and he ordered Punjabi Troops to storm their citadel of Mian Wadda. Suchet Singh and Rai Kesari Singh were killed. Hira Singh Dogra then broke down on sight of his uncle's bullet-ridden body and gives him a huge funeral. At the same time, two camps were seen emerging, one at Sarkar Khalsa at Lahore and another little bit away close to Batala under Bhai Bir Singh. Many Sikh Sardars like Majhitias, Attariwala were although loyal to Sarkar Khalsa at Lahore but in communications with Bhai Bir Singh. Attar Singh Sandhawalia who had earlier fled to Thanesar slipped into Punjab and came to Bhai Bir Singh's camp. Bhai Bir Singh welcomed him and assured him that he will be made Maharaja of Punjab. Soon Prince Kashmir Singh and Prince Peshaura Singh also joined Bhai Bir Singh and supported Attar Singh Sandhawalia on his bid for kingship. So mostly Sikhs who were against Dogras got themselves under Bhai Bir Singh, thus creating two camps of Dogras vs. Sikhs. More than 70% of Punjab's army under Hira Singh Dogra was Khalsa or pure Sikh. Hira Singh Dogra through his promises of more salary and gifts of gold for each soldier manage to keep most of them with him, and above all king of Punjab was still a Khalsa Sikh child named Dilip Singh, to whom army was loyal. Hira Singh reminded army of the murders of Prince Sher Singh by Sandhawalia brothers and how Attar Singh had fled Punjab after his brothers were killed by the army. Then in an apparent move to win over Khalsa of Sarkar Khalsa army, Bhai Bir Singh invited army at his camp for a feast. More than 5000 goats were sacrificed for this party. Attar Singh Sandhawalia in a fit of rage over an argument fired on one of the Sikh officers named Attar Singh Kalkattia killing him on spot. A riot followed in which one by one Bhai Bir Singh's other guests were murdered by Army. Bhai Bir Singh died, as well as Attar Singh Sandhawalia and Prince Kashmira Singh. The main culprit for this riot was one battalion under major Croft one of the foreign officers employed by Sarkar Khalsa. His battalion was aptly named "Gurumar". Hira Singh Dogra understood the grave mistake and apologized to the murders of princes and Bhai Bir Singh to Army as well as the whole nation. On April 9, 1944, a huge earthquake hit Amritsar and Lahore and was believed to be a sign of bad luck by general populace

British forward post at Ferozepur was being strengthened and by all means, it looked like that whole of Punjab was under preparation of war. Ambala and Jalandhar cantonments were tripled with reinforcements and new recruits from Bengal, Awadh, and Bihar. Hira Singh Dogra although fearing British knew that war was inevitable. Millions of Punjabis left central Punjab and settled in other states which were a protectorate of British, like Patiala, Faridkot, Nabha, and Jind. Hira Singh Dogra mobilized Punjabi troops to Kasur which was directly opposite Ferozepur. Sooner both armies directly opposed to each other. In December of 1944, Henry Harding took over as Governor General of India. He was called Tunda Lat Or One armed lord. He sent his officers to Ferozepur and Punjabis fearing attack put on a vigil for 24 hours a day. But no attack came and standstill was averted. Then came the second round of intrigues between Dogras and Sikhs. Pundit Jalla accused Maharani Jindan of illicit relations with one Misr Lal Singh (not general). This created a furor all over the kingdom as she was the mother of king Dilip Singh. Enraged Maharani Jindan was summoned to army panches as well as Hira Singh Dogra and Pundit Jalla. Couple days earlier, Hira Singh Dogra had dismissed 500 of army soldiers without pay and thus he feared worst. Maharani Jindan with her son Dilip Singh and brother Jawahar Singh came to cantonment, while Hira Singh Dogra and Pundit Jalla sent advance horsemen to his uncle Gulab Singh at Jammu for help. Gulab Singh sent 1000 horsemen, and Hira Singh and Jalla came out of their palace and slowly and quietly crossed river Ravi from Shahdara and were on their way to Jammu with more crores of the treasury. Khalsa army pursued them and caught them about 14 miles away from the city. Mian Labh Singh, their general give a good fight but all 1000 Dogras were massacred. Pundit Jalla, Hira Singh Dogra, and their accomplice faced the wrath of Khalsa army, their heads were put up on city streets of Lahore. Then Diwan Deena Nath, an aristocrat of Lahore took charge of the situation and appointed Lal Singh as Chief Minister of Punjab, Tej Singh as commander of Army and Dilip Singh as Maharaja of Punjab.

Punjabi Khalsa army was a much larger and stronger force and at this time British were still mobilizing their forces from Ambala and other places. Instead of attacking Ferozepur, Lal Singh waited for four months by the British forces were three times stronger than the Khalsa army. It is said that Lal Singh had already negotiated with British and supplied them with the position of guns, number of soldiers, plan of attack and other vital statistics. Let's read about Anglo-Sikh wars in depth.

The intrigue of Dogra brothers for their own selfish means and inability of any Sikh politicians to lead was responsible for the demise of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Sarkar Khalsa. After Anglo-Sikh Wars, Dogras Got whole Kashmir (until 1947 then it was divided between India and Pakistan), British got Punjab and Sikhs lost their hard-earned kingdom.

Foreign Minister of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Fakir Aziz-ud-Din.

Fakir Aziz-ud-Din was a physician, linguist, diplomat, and foreign minister at the court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He was a Muslim, one of many non-Sikhs, in Ranjit Singh's secular government of the Sikh Empire.

He was the eldest son of Hakim Ghulam Mohi-ud-Din and had two brothers, Nur-ud-Din and Imam-ud-Din. Both had senior military posts in the empire. He was apprenticed as a physician and was originally known by the title Hakim (physician). Later in life, he adopted the title Fakir (beggar), as a mark of humility, that title appearing in British correspondence after 1826.

His first contact with Ranjit Singh was as a physician. The Maharaja was impressed by his medical skill and proficiency in languages – Arabic, Persian, and English – and had complete trust in him and rewarded him with a jagir and a position at court. His first major assignment was to assist the Maharaja in the negotiations with the British which led to the Treaty of Amritsar, 1809. Between 1810 and 1838 there followed a great number of diplomatic assignments and tasks as an interpreter.

Aziz-ud-Din continued in the service of the Sikh Empire after the death of Ranjit Singh. In December 1839 he represented Maharaja Kharak Singh on a mission to the British Governor-General, Lord Auckland. In 1842, on behalf of Maharaja Sher Singh, he welcomed the new Governor-General, Lord Ellenborough, at Firozpur. He remained scrupulously aloof from the factional intrigues which had overtaken the Empire after Ranjit Singh`s death.

Saddened at the turn events had taken and by the death of two of his sons, he died in Lahore on 3 December 1845.

Sunday, 1 October 2017

سلطان العارفین سخی سلطان باھو

سلطان العارفین سخی سلطان باھو یکم جمادی الثانی 1039ھ (17جنوری1630ء) بروز جمعرات بوقت فجر شاھجہان کے عہدِ حکومت میں قصبہ شورکوٹ ضلع جھنگ پنجاب میں پیدا ھوئے۔ آپ اعوان قبیلہ سے تعلق رکھتے ھیں۔سخی سلطان باھو کے والد بازید محمد پیشہ ور سپاھی تھے اور شاھجہان کے لشکر میں ممتاز عہدے پر فائز تھے۔ آپ ایک صالح ' شریعت کے پابند ' حافظِ قرآن ' فقیہ شخص تھے۔ سخی سلطان باھو کی والدہ بی بی راستی عارفہ کاملہ تھیں اور پاکیزگی اور پارسائی میں اپنے خاندان میں معروف تھیں۔ آپ نے ابتدائی باطنی و روحانی تربیت اپنی والدہ ماجدہ سے حاصل کی۔ کہا جاتا ھے کہ آپ مادر زاد ولی تھے۔ بچپن ھی میں آپ کے روحانی کمالات کے ظہور سے آئندہ زندگی کی تصویر نمایاں تھی۔ آپ اپنی والدہ ماجدہ قدس سرھا کا دودھ رمضان المبارک میں سحری سے لے کر شام تک نہیں پیتے تھے۔ یعنی اپنے والدین کی طرح صائم رھتے تھے۔ اوائل عمری میں ھی آپ وارداتِ غیبی اور فتوحاتِ لاریبی میں مستغرق رھتے۔ پنجابی زبان کے صوفی شاعر سلطان العارفین سخی سلطان باھو کو جس چیز نے شہرت دوام بخشی وہ (ابیات باھو) ھے۔ اس کے ھر مصرعے کے بعد (ھو) آتا ھے۔ جو ذات باری تعالٰی کے لیے مخصوص ھے۔ یہ خاص رنگ سخن باھو کے ساتھ ھی مخصوص ھے۔ آپ کی تمام شاعری تصوف سے مملو ھے۔

سخی سلطان باھو پیدائشی عارف باللہ تھے۔ آپ اپنی کتب میں بیان فرماتے ھیں کہ میں تیس سال تک مرشد کی تلاش میں رھا مگر مجھے اپنے پائے کا مرشد نہ مل سکا۔ یہ اس لیے کہ آپ فقر کے اس اعلیٰ ترین مقام پر فائز تھے جہاں دوسروں کی رسائی بہت مشکل تھی۔ چنانچہ آپ اپنا ایک کشف اپنی کتب میں بیان فرماتے ھیں کہ ایک دن آپ دیدارِ الٰہی میں مستغرق شورکوٹ کے نواح میں گھوم رھے تھے کہ اچانک ایک صاحبِ نور ' صاحبِ حشمت سوار نمودار ھوئے جنہوں نے اپنائیت سے آپ کو اپنے قریب کیا اور آگاہ کیا کہ میں علیؓ ابنِ طالبؓ ھوں اور پھر فرمایا کہ آج تم رسول اللہﷺ کے دربار میں طلب کیے گئے ھو۔ پھر ایک لمحے میں آپ نے خود کو آقا پاک ﷺ کی بارگاہ میں پایا۔ اس وقت اس بارگاہ میں ابوبکر صدیقؓ  ' عمر فاروقؓ  ' عثمان غنیؓ  اور تمام اہلِ بیت حاضر تھے۔ آپ کو دیکھتے ہی پہلے ابوبکر صدیقؓ نے آپ پر توجہ فرمائی اور مجلس سے رخصت ھوئے۔ بعد ازاں عمر فاروقؓ اور عثمان غنیؓ بھی توجہ فرمانے کے بعد مجلس سے رخصت ھو گئے۔ پھر آنحضرت ﷺ نے اپنے دونوں دستِ مبارک میری طرف بڑھا کر فرمایا میرے ھاتھ پکڑو اور مجھے دونوں ھاتھوں سے بیعت فرمایا۔ بعد ازاں آقائے دو جہاں ﷺ نے آپ کو غوث الاعظم شیخ عبدالقادر جیلانی کے سپرد فرمایا۔ آپ فرماتے ھیں جب فقر کے شاھسوار نے مجھ پر کرم کی نگاہ ڈالی تو ازل سے ابد تک کا تمام راستہ میں نے طے کر لیا۔ پھر عبدالقادر جیلانی کے حکم پر سخی سلطان باھو نے دھلی میں عبدالرحمن جیلانی دھلوی کے ھاتھ پر ظاھری بیعت کی اور ایک ھی ملاقات میں فقر کی وراثت کی صورت میں اپنا ازلی نصیبا ان سے حاصل کر لیا۔

سخی سلطان باھوکا تعلق سلسلہ سروری قادری سے ھے۔ سلسلہ قادری کا آغاز عبدالقادر جیلانی سے ھوا اور اس کی دو شاخیں سروری قادری اور زاھدی قادری ھیں۔ سخی سلطان باھو کا سلسلہ سروری قادری ھے۔ آپ فرماتے ھیں: قادری طریقہ بھی دو قسم کا ھے؛ ایک سروری قادری اور دوسرا زاھدی قادری۔ سروری قادری مرشد صاحبِ اسم اللہ ذات ھوتا ھے اس لیے وہ جس طالبِ اللہ کو حاضراتِ اسمِ اللہ ذات کی تعلیم و تلقین سے نوازتا ھے تو اسے پہلے ھی روز اپنا ھم مرتبہ بنا دیتا ھے جس سے طالبِ اللہ اتنا لایحتاج و بے نیاز متوکل الی اللہ ھو جاتا ھے کہ اس کی نظر میں مٹی و سونا برابر ھو جاتا ھے۔ زاھدی قادری طریقے کا طالب بارہ سال تک ایسی ریاضت کرتا ھے کہ اس کے پیٹ میں طعام تک نہیں جاتا۔ بارہ سال کی ریاضت کے بعد شیخ عبدالقادر جیلانی اس کی دستگیری فرماتے ھیں اور اسے سالک مجذوب یا مجذوب سالک بنا دیتے ھیں۔ اس کے مقابلے میں سروری قادری کا مرتبہ محبوبیت کا مرتبہ ھے۔

سخی سلطان باھو سروری قادری مرشد کا مرتبہ یوں بیان فرماتے ھیں؛ سروری قادری کی ابتداء کیا ھے؟ قادری کامل (سروری قادری) نظر سے یا تصورِ اسمِ اللہ ذات سے یا ضربِ کلمہ طیب سے یا باطنی توجہ سے طالبِ اللہ کو معرفتِ الٰہی کے نور میں غرق کر کے مجلسِ محمدیﷺ کی حضوری میں پہنچا دیتا ھے کہ طریقہ قادری میں یہ پہلے ھی روز کا سبق ھے۔ جو مرشد اس سبق کو نہیں جانتا اور طالبوں کو مجلسِ محمدی ﷺ کی حضوری میں نہیں پہنچاتا وہ قادری کامل ھرگز نہیں۔ سلطان العارفین سخی سلطان باھو اسی اعلیٰ ترین پائے کے مرشد کامل اکمل ھیں۔

سخی سلطان باھو کا فقر میں مقام و مرتبہ ھر کسی کے وھم و گمان سے بھی بالا تر ھے۔آپ سلطان الفقر پنجم کے مرتبہ پر فائز ھیں۔ آپ کو وہ خاص روحانی قوت حاصل ھے کہ آپ قبر میں بھی زندوں کی طرح تصرف فرماتے ھیں۔ آپ فرماتے ھیں جب سے لطفِ ازلی کے باعث حقیقتِ حق کی عین نوازش سے سربلندی حاصل ھوئی ھے اور حضور فائض النور نبی اکرم ﷺسے تمام خلقت ' کیا مسلم ' کیا کافر ' کیا بانصیب ' کیا بے نصیب ' کیا زندہ ' کیا مردہ ' سب کو ھدایت کا حکم ملا ھے۔ آپ ﷺنے اپنی زبانِ گوھر فشاں سے مجھے مصطفی ثانی اور مجتبیٰ آخر زمانی فرمایا ھے۔

سخی سلطان باھو نے ھر لمحہ استغراقِ حق میں مستغرق رھنے کی وجہ سے ظاھری علم حاصل نہیں کیا لیکن پھر بھی آپ نے طالبانِ مولیٰ کی رھنمائی کے لیے ایک سو چالیس کتب تصنیف فرمائیں۔ آپ کی تمام کتب علمِ لدّنی کا شاھکار ھیں۔ ان کتب کا سب سے بڑا معجزہ یہ ھے کہ انہیں ادب اور اعتقاد سے پڑھنے والے کی مرشدِ کامل اکمل تک راھنمائی ھو جاتی ھے۔ اپنی تمام کتب میں آپ نے معرفتِ الٰہی کی منازل طے کرنے کے لیے راہِ فقر اختیار کرنے اور مرشدِ کامل کی زیرِ نگرانی ذکر و تصور اسمِ ذات کی تلقین کی ھے۔ آپ ذکر و تصورِ اسمِ ذات کو قلب (باطن) کی کلید فرماتے ھیں جس کے ذریعے تزکیہ نفس ' تسویہ قلب اور تجلیۂ روح کے بعد طالبِ مولیٰ کو دیدارِ الٰہی اور مجلسِ محمدی ﷺ کی حضوری کے اعلیٰ ترین مقامات عطا ھوتے ھیں۔

سخی سلطان باھو فرماتے ھیں کہ میں تیس سال ایسے طالبِ حق کی تلاش میں رھا جسے میں وھاں تک پہنچا سکتا جہاں میں ھوں لیکن مجھے ایسا طالبِ حق نہ مل سکا۔ چنانچہ آپ امانتِ فقر کسی کے بھی حوالے کیے بغیر وصال فرما گئے۔ آپ کا وصال یکم جمادی الثانی 1102ھ (بمطابق یکم مارچ1691ء) بروز جمعرات بوقت عصر ھوا۔ سلطان العارفین سخی سلطان باھو کا مزار مبارک گڑھ مہاراجہ ضلع جھنگ پاکستان میں ھے۔ آپ کا عرس ھر سال جمادی الثانی کی پہلی جمعرات کو منایا جاتا ھے۔

Friday, 29 September 2017

Oldest Universities of British India.

1. University of Calcutta in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) was established on 24 January 1857 in West Bengal, India.

2. University of Mumbai in Mumbai (formerly Bombay) was established in 1857 in Maharashtra, India.

3.  University of Madras in Chennai (formerly Madras) was established in 1857 in Tamil Nadu, India.

4.  University of Punjab in Lahore was established in 1882 in Punjab, Pakistan.

5. University of Allahabad in Allahabad was established on 23 September 1887 in Uttar Pradesh, India.

6. University of Mysore in Mysore was established in 1916 in Karnataka, India.

7.   Patna University in Patna was established in 1917 in Bihar, India.

8. Osmania University in Hyderabad was established in 1918 in Hyderabad, India.

9.  Aligarh Muslim University in Aligarh was established in 1920 in Uttar Pradesh, India.

10.  University of Dhaka in Dhaka was established in 1921 in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

11.  University Of Lucknow in Lucknow was established on 17 July 1921 in Uttar Pradesh, India.

12.   University of Delhi in Delhi was established in 1922 in Delhi, India.

13.   Andhra University in Madras was established in 1926 in Andhra Pradesh, India.

14.  Annamalai University in Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram was established in 1929 in Tamil Nadu, India.

15.  University of Kerala, formerly the University of Travancore in Thiruvananthapuram was established in 1937 in Kerala, India.

پنجابی زبان لئی لاھور وچ 13 اکتوبر 2017 نوں بھک ھڑتال تے احتجاجی مطاھرہ

پنجابی پرچار ولوں پنجابی زبان نوں پہلی جماعت توں لازمی پڑھان ' پنجابی صوفیاں دی تعلیمات نوں نصاب دا حصہ بنان ' پنجاب اسمبلی وچ پنجابی بولن تے پابندی نوں ختم کرن  لئی لاھور وچ 13 اکتوبر 2017 نوں لاھور پریس کلب دے سامنے دن 11 بجے توں لے کے 4 بجے تک بھک ھڑتال تے 30۔4 بجے توں لے کے شام 6 بجے تک پنجاب اسمبلی دے سامنے مال روڈ تے احتجاجی مطاھرہ ھووے گا۔ پنجابی ودھ توں ودھ رلت کرن۔

پنجاب دی اسمبلی چوں جد اے قانون پاس ھو گیا کہ ھن پنجاب دے سکولاں وچ تعلیم پنجابی زبان وچ دتی جاوے گی ' پنجاب دی اسمبلی تے دفتراں وچ کارروائی اردو دے بجائے پنجابی زبان وچ ھووے گی تے پنجابی صوفیاں دی تعلیمات نوں وی نصاب دا حصہ بنایا جائے گا ' فے پہلوں توں ای دنیا وچ بولی جان والی نوویں وڈی زبان ھون دے کرکے پنجابی زبان نے عالمی سطح تے بوھت زیادہ اھمیت اختیار کرلینی اے۔ جیس دے کرکے پنجابی زبان نے دنیا وچ سب توں زیادہ بولی ' سمجھی تے سکھی جان والی آں دس وڈی آں عالمی زباناں چوں اک زبان دا درجہ حاصل کرلینا اے تے پنجابی قوم نے بین الاقوامی سطح تے ھور بوھتا عزت تے وقار حاصل کرلینا اے۔

پنجابی قوم دنیا دی نوویں سب توں وڈی قوم اے۔
پنجابی قوم جنوبی ایشیا دی تیجی سب توں وڈی قوم اے۔
پنجابی مسلمان مسلم امہ دی تیجی سب توں وڈی برادری اے۔
پنجابیاں دی پاکستان وچ آبادی 60 فیصد اے۔
پنجابی زبان پاکستان دی 80 فیصد آبادی بولنا جاندی اے۔
پنجابی زبان پاکستان دی 90 فیصد آبادی سمجھ لیندی اے۔

پنجابی زبان دی پرورش صوفی بزرگاں بابا فرید ' بابا نانک ' شاہ حسین ' سلطان باہو ' بلھے شاہ ' وارث شاہ ' خواجہ غلام فرید ' میاں محمد بخش کیتی۔ ایس لئی پنجابی زبان دا پس منظر روحانی ھون دے کرکے پنجابی زبان وچ علم ' حکمت تے دانش دے خزانے نے جیہڑے اخلاقی کردار نوں بہتر کرن تے روحانی نشو نما دی صلاحیت رکھدے نے پر  پاکستان دے صوبہ پنجاب وچ وی اج ماں بولی دے نال اوھو جیآ ای مسئلہ اے جیہڑا گیارھویں صدی عیسوی وچ انگریزی نال برطانیہ وچ سی۔ پنجاب دی اشرافیہ دا رحجان اردو زبان ول اے۔ ایہو ای وجہ اے کہ اردو زبان نوں پنجاب دی سرکاری زبان دا درجہ حاصل اے۔ جد کہ اردو زبان نال عام پنجابی نوں دلچسپی نئیں اے۔ کیونکہ پنجاب دی عوامی زبان پنجابی ای اے۔ پر ایس دے باوجود پنجابی زبان دے عوامی زبان ھون دی افادیت تے پنجاب دی اشرافیہ توجہ نئیں دے رئی۔ 

پنجاب دی اشرافیہ اردو توں متاثر اے تے غلامی دے خول چوں بار نئیں آنا چاھئدی۔ حالانکہ اردو زبان صرف کاغذاں دی حد تک تسلیم شدہ سرکاری تے پنجاب دی اشرافیہ دی زبان دی حد تک محدود زبان تے ھے پر پنجابیاں دی عوامی زبان نئیں بن پا رئی۔ عام پنجابی اپنی ماں بولی پنجابی نوں چھڈ وی نئیں ریا تے نسل در نسل منتقل وی کر ریا اے۔ ایس لئی ای پنجابی زبان پورے پنجاب وچ بولی تے سمجھی جاندی اے۔ جد کہ اردو صرف پنجاب دی تسلیم شدہ سرکاری تے پنجاب دی اشرافیہ دی زبان دی حد تک محدود اے۔

فرانس دے نارمنز نے گیارھویں صدی عیسوی وچ برطانیہ نوں فتح کر کے اپنی حکومت قائم کر لئی۔ اس فتح توں بعد انگریزاں دے مذھبی طبقے نے لاطینی زبان دے نفاذ تے زور دتا جد کہ برطانیہ دی اشرافیہ دا رحجان فرانسیسی زبان ول سی۔ اے ای وجہ سی کہ فرانسیسی زبان نوں برطانیہ دی سرکاری زبان دا درجہ مل گیا۔ حالانکہ لاطینی تے فرانسیسی زبان نال عام انگریز نوں دلچسپی نئیں سی۔ کیونکہ برطانیہ دی عوامی زبان انگریزی ای سی۔ پر ایس دے باوجود انگریزی زبان دے عوامی زبان ھون دی افادیت تے برطانیہ دی اشرافیہ نے توجہ نہ دتی۔ 

اے صورتحال تقریبا تین سو سال چلی۔ فرانسیسی زبان صرف تسلیم شدہ سرکاری تے برطانیہ دی اشرافیہ دی زبان دی حد تک محدود رئی پر انگریزاں دی عوامی زبان نہ بن سکی۔ عام انگریز نے اپنی ماں بولی انگریزی نوں نہ چھڈیا تے نسل در نسل منتقل وی کیتا۔ 

چودھویں صدی دے آغاز تک برطانیہ وچ فرانسیسی اثر و رسوخ گھٹ گیا تے برطانیہ نے آزادی دے لئی فرانس نال لگ بھگ سو سالہ جنگ لڑی۔ برطانیہ وچ 1362 وچ اک قانون پاس کیتا گیا کہ ھن عدالتی کارروائی فرانسیسی دے بجائے انگریزی زبان وچ ھووے گی۔ 

ایس طراں برطانوی قوم نے نہ صرف اپنی شناخت نوں زندہ رکھیا بلکہ اپنی زبان نوں وی ختم ھون توں بچایا تے اج دنیا وچ انگریزی سب توں زیادہ بولی ' سمجھی تے سکھی جا رئی اے تے عالمی زبان دا درجہ حاصل کر چکی اے۔

Universities of British India and Date of Establishment.

1.    The University of Calcutta is a public state university located in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), West Bengal, India established on 24 January 1857. It was the 1st institution in Asia to be established as a multidisciplinary and secular Western-style university.
2.    The University of Mumbai is the 2nd oldest University in the subcontinent and the oldest in Maharashtra, established in 1857. The University of Mumbai was modeled on similar universities in the United Kingdom, specifically the University of London.

3.     The University of Madras is a public state university in Chennai (formerly Madras), Tamil Nadu, established in 1857. It is the 3rd oldest University in the subcontinent. The university progressed and expanded through the 19th century to span the whole of South India, giving birth to universities like Mysore University (1916), Osmania University (1918), Andhra University (1926), Annamalai University (1929), Travancore University (1937) presently University of Kerala, Sri Venkateswara University (1954), Madurai Kamaraj University (1966), Bharathidasan University (1982), Bharathiar University (1982), Manonmaniam Sundaranar University (1990), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (1971), Anna University (1978), Tamil University (1981), Mother Teresa Women's University (1984), Dr. M.G.R. Medical University (1989), Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (1989), Periyar University (1997) and Dr. Ambedkar Law University (1996).

4.          The University of the Punjab is a public research university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, established in 1882. It is the 4th oldest University in the subcontinent and oldest public university in Pakistan. Contrary to the three previously established universities, which were only examining institutions, the University of the Punjab was both teachings as well as examining body right from the beginning. It served the educational needs of the entire region of pre-independence Punjab and northern India. Mohindra College, Patiala was the first college of higher learning to affiliate with the University of Punjab in 1882; followed by St. Stephen's College, Delhi.

5.         The University of Allahabad is a public central university located in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, established on 23 September 1887; it is the 5th oldest University in the subcontinent. Its origins lie in the Muir Central College, named after Lt. Governor of North-Western Provinces, Sir William Muir in 1876, who suggested the idea of a Central University at Allahabad, which later evolved to the present university. The foundation stone of the Muir Central College was laid by Governor-General of India, Lord Northbrook on 9 December 1873. The college was named after Sir William Muir, Lt. Governor of United Province, who was instrumental in its foundation. Initially, it functioned under the University of Calcutta and later, on 23 September 1887, the University of Allahabad was established.

6.     The University of Mysore is a public state university in Mysore, Karnataka, India. It is the 6th oldest University in the subcontinent. It is established in the year 1916 by then Maharaja of Mysore, Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV, after two of his educational experts (C. R. Reddy and Thomas Denham) undertook a five-year study of higher education around the world. They structured the new school to encompass elements from universities that promote original research (University of Chicago), those that emphasize extending knowledge among the people (University of Wisconsin), and those that combine intellectualism with an educational system calculated to train students for political and social life (University of Oxford and Cambridge). H. V. Nanjundaiah, who played a key role in establishing the university۔

7.              Patna University is the 7th oldest University in the subcontinent and first in Bihar. It was established in the year 1917 during the British Raj, as an affiliating and examining body. At that time, the jurisdiction of the university extended to Bihar, Odisha, and the Kingdom of Nepal. The university oversaw examinations for educational institutions ranging from school finals to the postgraduate levels. This continued almost for four decades until the establishment of the Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, and the Utkal University, Bhubaneshwar.

8.            Osmania University is the 8th oldest University in the subcontinent. It is a public state university located in Hyderabad, India, founded in 1918 with the help of chief Architect of Mahbub Ali Khan - Nawab Sarwar Jung. It was established and named after the seventh and last Nizam of Hyderabad, Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan. It is the third oldest university in southern India, and the first to be established in the erstwhile princely State of Hyderabad. It is the first Indian university to have Urdu as a medium of instruction.

9.          Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is a public central university. It is the 9th oldest University in the subcontinent. It was established as Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind in 1875. The Anglo–Indian statesman Sir Syed Ahmad Khan founded the predecessor of AMU, the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, in 1875. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan's image for the college was based on his visit to Oxford and Cambridge and he wanted to establish an education system similar to the British model. In the beginning, the college was affiliated with the University of Calcutta for the matriculate examination but became an affiliate of Allahabad University in 1885. In 1877, the school was raised to the college level and Lord Lytton laid the foundation stone of the college building. Around 1900 efforts began to make the college its own university. The Aligarh Muslim University Act of 1920 made it a central university.

10.          University of Dhaka also known as Dhaka University or simply DU), is the oldest university in modern Bangladesh. It is the 10th oldest University in the subcontinent, established in 1921. After the Partition of India, it became the focal point of progressive and democratic movements in Pakistan. Its students and teachers played a central role in the rise of Bengali nationalism and the independence of Bangladesh.

11.         University Of Lucknow or Lucknow University (LU) is a government-owned Indian university based in Lucknow. It is the 11th oldest University in the subcontinent. LU's old campus is located at Badshah Nagar, University Road area of the city with a new campus at Jankipuram. On 17 July 1921, the University undertook to teach, both formal and informal. Teaching in the Faculties of Arts, Science, Commerce, and Law were being done in the Canning College and teaching in the Faculty of Medicine in the King George's Medical College and Hospital. The Canning College was handed over to the University on 1 July 1922. The King George's Medical College and the King George's Hospital were transferred by the Government to the University on the 1 March 1921.

12.        University of Delhi was established in 1922 as a unitary, teaching and residential university by an Act of the then Central Legislative Assembly of the British India. It is the 12th oldest University in the subcontinent. Only four colleges existed in Delhi at the time: St. Stephen's College founded in 1881, Hindu College founded in 1899, Zakir Husain Delhi College (then known as The Delhi College), founded in 1692 and Ramjas College founded in 1917, which was subsequently affiliated with the university. The university thus had modest beginnings with only four colleges, two faculties (Arts and Science), and about 750 students.

13.         Andhra University is a public university located in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. It was established in 1926 by the Madras University Act to serve the entire linguistic region of Andhra as a residential teaching-cum-affiliating University. It is the 13th oldest University in the subcontinent.

14.           Annamalai University is located in Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India. It was established in the year 1929 by the entrepreneur Annamalai Chettiyar in the aftermath of the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. It is the 14th oldest University in the subcontinent.


15.           University of Kerala (UoK), formerly the University of Travancore, is an affiliating university located in Thiruvananthapuram, capital of the south Indian state of Kerala, India. It was established in 1937, long before the birth of the state of Kerala in India, by a promulgation of the Maharajah of Travancore, Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma۔ It is the 15th oldest University in the subcontinent.