Balochistan was the part of the Harappan cultural orbit and marked the westernmost extent of the
civilization. The Baloch people, the largest ethnic group in the region are a Kurdish group that has dominated the local people in Makran, southern Sistan, and the Brahvi country. Indus Valley
The Baloch population is divided between the Pakistani
, the Iranian province of Balochistan and province of Sistan Baluchistan and the Afghan region of Baluchistan. The invasions of Genghis Khan into Bampoor caused the bulk of Baloch migrations and the Balochs were given refuge in the western most region of civilization. Indus Valley
Later infighting between Baloch resulted in clans led by Sardars, which claimed regions within the southwestern region of
civilization. In an effort to gain total control of the regions, the British named the areas of Makran, Kharan, Las Bela, and Kalat as the Kalat States Union and got the support of the Baloch Sardars who then were titled, Nawabs. These Nawabs were to keep minor Brahvi, Pathan and other factions in check. Indus Valley
During the period of the British Raj, there were four Princely States in Balochistan: Makran, Kharan, Las Bela, and Kalat. In 1876, Sir Robert Sandeman negotiated the Treaty of Kalat, which brought the Khan's territories, including Kharan, Makran, and Las Bela, under British suzerainty.
After the Second Afghan War was ended by the Treaty of Gandamak in May 1879, the Afghan Emir ceded the districts of
, Pishin, Harnai, Sibi and Thal Chotiali to the British. On Quetta 1 April 1883, the British took control of the Bolan Pass, southeast of from the Khan of Kalat. In 1886, the Bori valley, in which is now the cantonment of Loralai, was occupied. In 1887, the Khetran country, now known as the Barkhan tahsil, was brought under British control and in November 1887, a province with the name of British Balochistan was created. The cantonment of Quetta became the head-quarters of the Administration of The Chief Commissioner's Quetta , located in the northern parts of the modern Balochistan province. Province of British Balochistan
Sir Robert Sandeman, a Scotsman, is considered to be the founder of British
Baluchistan. Sandeman was singularly successful in his dealings with the Baloch and Brahvis. He understood the tribes better than his peers, possibly because he himself was a highlander. He found it easier and cheaper to control a handful of tribal chiefs rather than try to control the tribes directly.
He found that the Sardars needed authority and the means --- guns, money, horses --- to hold that authority. The British had these means. He bartered guns, money, and horses for the Sardars' allegiance. In the bargain, the Sardars guaranteed local law and order. Sandeman encouraged the Sardars to raise own Lashkars or Levies. These armed men were paid from British treasury and were controlled by the District officers. The Levies were tribal paramilitary troops organized on tribal authority to maintain law and order in their own territories. Those who opposed British authority were labeled ruffians and scoundrels. Sandeman never hesitated from using brute physical force where-ever he thought it was required.
A Political Agent was permanently reappointed to Kalat in 1884, to keep touch with the Khan and to exercise the right of arbitration. The Khan had a powerful constituency among the Brahui section of the population and many Baluch Sardar owed allegiance to him. He called the Nawabs of Makran and Kharan and the Jam of Las Bela as his feudatories. The Khan was entitled to a salute of nineteen guns.
In 1890 and 1891 were carried out that series of politico-military expeditions which resulted in the occupation of the Zhob valley and Kakar Khurasan, the foundation of the central cantonment of Fort Sandeman, and the extension of a line of outposts which, commencing at Quetta, may be said to rest on Wana north of the Gomal. The effect of these expeditions, and of this extension of military occupation, was to reduce the independent Pathan tribes of the Suliman mountains to effective order and to put a stop to border raiding on the
Indus plains south of the Gomal. Regular British troops were cantoned at , Chaman, Quetta , anil Loralai, and detachments were stationed at different places, principally in the Zhob and Loralai Districts, for the preservation of law and order. There was also a police force, supplemented by levies and the Zhob, Makrau and Chagai Levy Corps. The latter were recruited from the local tribes, and have their own leading men as officers. Fort Sandeman
In 1896 Chagai and
Western Sinjrani were included in administered territory. In 1899, the Nuskhi Niabat was made over by the Khan of Kalat on an annual quit-rent of 9,000 rupees and in 1903 the Nasirabad tahsil was acquired from the Khan of Kalat on an annual quit-rent of 117,500 rupees.
The area of
was 73,278 square miles, and the population 354,095 (1911 census.) and the area of British and administered territory were 46,960 sq. miles, and the population (1911) 414,000. The province was administered by a Chief Commissioner appointed by the Federal Government. Although there was no elected legislature the Chief Commissioner could consult the Shahi Jirga, an assembly of tribal leaders. Kalat State
The area under the direct administration of the Chief Commissioner and Agent to the Governor-General was divided into 6 districts, each in charge of a Political Agent as follows: Quetta-Pishin, Sibi, Zhob, Loralai, Rolan Pass, Chagai. The Political Agents were also the Collectors, District Magistrates, and Sessions Judges, and were assisted by European Assistant-Political Agents and either native or European Extra-Assistant Commissioners and a staff of subordinate revenue and judicial officials. The Political Agent in charge of the
Bolan Pass was also Political Agent for Kalat and Las Bela.
The province comprised three groups of areas – the settled districts, the political agencies and the tribal area. The settled areas were mainly the district around
and Jaffarabad. The agencies were the Zhob agency to the north of Quetta and the Chagai agency in the west, which had a tenuous land link with the rest of the province. The tribal areas were the Bugti and Marri tribal agencies which would later become Provincially Administered Tribal Areas in the new Balochistan province. Quetta
The population of the province was split between Baloch tribes in the southwest, Brahvi tribes in the center, and Pashtun tribes in the north and northwest.
The province became part of
in 1947 and continued to be administered by a Chief Commissioner. It was dissolved in 1955 when most parts of the western wing of Pakistan became the new Pakistan . province of West Pakistan West Pakistan was dissolved in 1970.
The former Chief Commissioner's province was combined with the former Kalat States Union and the enclave of Gwadar to form a new, larger
, with a Governor, a Chief Minister, and a Provincial Assembly. Balochistan Province
The Baluchistan States
Union was formed after the accession of four individual princely states to the new Dominion of in 1948. Pakistan
The first head of the
Union was the Khan of Kalat, who held the title Khan-e-Azam.
The main governing body was the Council of Rulers which comprised the Khan-e-Azam, the Jam of Las Bela and the Nawabs of Kharan and Makran. Decisions on major issues could be taken by a jirga or council of all the nobles or Sardars of the
The area of the
Union was roughly the western half of the modern . province of Balochistan
Union was separate from the Chief Commissioners Province of Baluchistan, which comprised areas to the northeast of the Union.
Union did not include the enclave of Gwadar, which was part of the Sultanate of . Oman
The four state rulers continued in office, but some matters became the responsibility of the Council of Rulers.
The area became the Kalat Division when the
Union was dissolved.
The Baluchistan States
Union became an administrative division of that existed between Pakistan 3 October 1952 and 14 October 1955 in southwest . It was formed by the four princely states of Kalat, Kharan, Las Bela and Makran with the capital in the town of Pakistan . Kalat
In August 1947 the Chief Commissioner's Province of Balochistan immediately became part of Pakistan, followed by the princely states of Makran, Kharan, Las Bela, and the Khanate of Kalat, who decided to accede to Pakistan in March 1948. The Khan of Kalat agreed to join
under the condition that defense, currency, foreign relations, and finance would be controlled by the federal government, but that the province would remain otherwise autonomous. The four princely states together formed the Balochistan States Pakistan Union in October 1952. The enclave of Gwadar was excluded from this as it was still part of the Sultanate of . Oman
In October 1955, the formation of one unit resulted in the Balochistan States
Union and the Chief Commissioner's being merged with all the remaining provinces and princely states in other parts of Province of Balochistan to form the Pakistan . The enclave of Gwadar was purchased from province of West Pakistan in October 1958 and was also merged with Oman West Pakistan. The province was officially dissolved in 1970 and the former Balochistan States Union, former Chief Commissioner's Province of Balochistan was combined to form the new province of Balochistan. The government of later decided to incorporate Gwadar in Balochistan in 1977, thus expanding Balochistan province in its current form. Pakistan