Ancient civilizations are the basis of the world as we know it today, built on the ruins of 10,000 years of advanced cultures such as the Greek, Roman, Mesopotamia, Mayan, Indus, Egyptian, and others that we know primarily through archaeology and some written records.
Pakistan is composed of the land of Indus Valley Civilization and nowadays, Indus Valley Civilization land in Pakistan is classified as;
Punjabi region of Indus Valley Civilization.
Sammat region of Indus Valley Civilization.
Brahvi region of Indus Valley Civilization.
Hindko region of Indus Valley Civilization.
Punjabi, Sammat, Brahvi, Hindko are the actual and original inhabitants of Indus Valley Civilization but they are facing the confusion, confrontation and crisis due to the infiltration and interruption of;
1. Afghani Pathans from Afghanistan.
2. Kurdistani Baloch from Kurdistan.
3. Hindustani Muhajir from Hindustan.
Mohenjo-Daro is an archeological site situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2600 BC, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. Mohenjo-Daro was abandoned in the 19th century BC and was not rediscovered until 1922. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.
Taxila is a Tehsil in the Rawalpindi District of Punjab province of Pakistan. It is an important archaeological site. Taxila is situated about 32 km (20 mi) northwest of Islamabad Capital Territory and Rawalpindi in Panjab; just off the Grand Trunk Road. Taxila lies 549 meters (1,801 ft) above sea level. The city dates back to the Gandhara period and contains the ruins of the Gandhāran city of Takaśilā which were an important Hindu and Buddhist center and is still considered a place of religious and historical sanctity in those traditions. In 1980, Taxila has declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site with multiple locations.
Gandhara region had once been the hallowed center of Buddhism, the cradle of the world famous Gandhara sculpture, culture, art, and learning. The archaeological remains found in Taxila, Peshawar, Charsadda, Takht Bhai, Swat and rock carvings along the ancient Silk Road (KKH) have well recorded the history of Gandhara. Lying in the Haro river valley near Islamabad, Taxila, the main center of Gandhara, is over 3,000 years old. Taxila has attracted the attention of the great conqueror, Alexander in 327 B.C., when it was a province of the powerful Achaemenian Empire. It later came under the Mauryan dynasty and reached a remarkably matured level of development under the great Ashoka. Then appeared the Indo-Greek descendants of Alexander’s warriors and finally came the most creative period of Gandhara.
Harappa is an archaeological site of Punjab, northeast Pakistan, about 35 km (22 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River. The current village of Harappa is 6 km (4 mi) from the ancient site. Although modern Harappa has a train station left from the British times, it is today just a small (pop. 15,000) crossroads town. The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Cemetery H culture and the Indus Valley Civilization, centered in Sindh and the Punjab. The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents—considered large for its time.
Mehrgarh, one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500 BCE) sites in archaeology, lies on the "Kachi plain" of now Balochistan, Pakistan. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep, and goats) in South Asia."Mehrgarh is located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River valley and between the now Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi. The site was discovered in 1974 by an archaeological team directed by French archaeologist Jean-François Jarrige, and was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986, and again from 1997 to 2000. The earliest settlement, at Mehrgarh—in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site—was a small farming village dated between 7000 BCE to 5500 BCE and the whole area covers a number of successive settlements. The archaeological material has been found in six mounds, and about 32,000 artifacts have been collected.