Thursday, 23 February 2017

What stands for UP, CP and UP-ite, CP-ite?

UP stands for United Provinces and CP stands for Central Provinces. A person belongs to United Provinces called as UP-ite and a person belongs to Central Provinces called as CP-ite.

United Provinces (1937–1950)

The United Provinces was a province of British India and subsequently, Independent India. It came into existence on 1 April 1937 as a result of the shortening of "United Provinces of British India". It corresponded approximately to the combined regions of the present-day Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

The Government of
India Act 1935 enlarged the elected provincial legislature and expanded provincial autonomy vis-a-vis the central government.

In the elections held in 1937, the Indian National Congress won the majority seats but declined to form a government. Therefore on
1 April 1937, and the Nawab of Chhatari, the leader of the National Agriculturist Parties, was invited to form a minority provisional government.

The Congress reversed its decision and resolved to accept office in July 1937. Therefore, the Governor Sir Haig invited Govind Ballabh Pant to form the government.

In 1939, all of the Congress ministries in British Indian provinces resigned and the United Provinces were placed under the Governor's rule. In 1945, the British Labor government ordered new elections to the Provincial legislatures. The Congress won a majority in the 1946 elections in the United Provinces and Govind Ballabh Pant was again the Premier, continuing even after India's independence in 1947.

Following independence in 1947, the princely states of 
Rampur, Banares, and Tehri-Garhwal were merged into the United Provinces. On 25 January 1950, this unit was renamed as Uttar Pradesh, preserving UP as the acronym. The state has provided eight of India's prime ministers and is the source of the largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. Despite its political influence, its poor record in economic development and administration, organized crime and corruption have kept it amongst India's backward states.

Uttar Pradesh has been affected by repeated episodes of caste and communal violence. In December 1992 the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya was demolished by radical activists, leading to widespread violence across India. In 2000, the separate state of Uttaranchal, now known as Uttarakhand, was carved out of Uttar Pradesh.

Uttar Pradesh has over 200 million inhabitants. Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh. The state has several historical, natural, and religious tourist destinations, such as AgraVaranasi, Raebareli, Kaushambi, Ballia, Shravasti, Gorakhpur, Chauri Chaura, Kushinagar, LucknowJhansiAllahabad, Budaun, MeerutMathura, Muzaffarnagar, and Shahjahanpur.

Uttar Pradesh is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest, Uttarakhand and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, and touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast.

Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganges, and the Yamuna join at Allahabad and then flow as the Ganges further east.

Uttar Pradesh is sometimes called the 'Hindi heartland of India'. Hindi became the language of state administration with the Uttar Pradesh Official Language Act of 1951. A 1989 amendment to the act added Urdu as another native language of the state. Linguistically, the state spreads across the Central, East-Central, and Eastern zones of the Indo-Aryan languages, the major native languages of the state being Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Braj Bhasha, Kannauji and the vernacular form of Khariboli.

Central Provinces (1861–1950)

The Central Provinces was a province of British India. It comprised British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India and covered parts of present-day Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra states. Its capital was Nagpur. It became the Central Provinces and Berar in 1936.

The Central Provinces was formed in 1861 by the merger of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories and Nagpur Province. The district of Nimar which was administered by the Central India Agency was added in 1864.

The Central Provinces was almost an island encircled by a sea of "native States" such as Bhopal State and Rewa State to the north, the Chota Nagpur States and Kalahandi State to the east, and the Nizam's territories of Hyderabad to the south and Berar to the west.

The northernmost portion of the state extended onto the Bundelkhand upland, whose northward-flowing rivers are tributaries of the Yamuna and Ganges. The Vindhya Range runs east and west, forming the watershed between the Ganges-Yamuna basin and the Narmada River basin, which occupies the center and west of the province, and flows westward to empty into the Arabian Sea. The upper Narmada valley forms the center of the Mahakoshal region. Jabalpur (formerly Jubbulpore) lay on the upper Narmada and was an important railway junction.

The Satpura Range divides the Narmada valley from the Deccan Plateau to the south. The Central Provinces included the northeastern portion of the Deccan, drained by tributaries of the Godavari River including the Wainganga, Wardha, and Indravati. A portion of Berar lay in the upper basin of the Tapti River, which drains westward into the Arabian Sea. The portion of the Central Provinces on the Deccan Plateau formed the Vidarbha region, which includes Nagpur, the capital of the province.

The eastern portion of the state lay in the upper Mahanadi River basin, which forms a fertile rice-growing region of Chhattisgarh. The Maikal Range separates the basins of the Narmada and the Mahanadi. The Chota Nagpur Plateau extended into the northeast corner of the province.

The 1931 census found a total population of 17,990,937 for the Central Provinces and Berar - 12,065,885 for the British districts, 3,441,838 for Berar, and 2,483,214 in the princely states.

The central Provinces contained two distinct linguistic regions: Mahakoshal, consisting mainly of Hindi-speaking districts, and Vidarbha, chiefly, but not exclusively, a Marathi-speaking area. The linguistic regions could not be fully integrated as a unit.

In the 1901 census, 6,111,000 (63% percent) of the population spoke variants of Hindi, chiefly Chhattisgarhi (27%), Bundeli (15%), Bagheli (10%) and Malvi or Rajasthani (5%). 2,107,000 (20%) spoke Marathi, the majority language of Wardha, Nagpur, Chanda, and Bhandara districts, and the southern portions of Nimar, Betul, Chhindwara, and Balaghat districts. Oriya speakers numbered 1,600,000, or 13.5%, but the transfer of Sambalpur District to Bengal in 1905 reduced the number of Oriya speakers to 292,000. There were 94,000 Telugu speakers, mostly in Chanda District. Of the 730,000 who spoke other Dravidian languages, the majority spoke Gondi, and 60,000 spoke Korku. 74,000 spoke Munda languages.

After Indian Independence in 1947, the Central Provinces and Berar became part of India as Madhya Pradesh. On 1 November 1956, Madhya Bharat, together with the states of Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal State, was merged into Madhya Pradesh. In 1956, under pressure from Marathi Irredentists, the Berar and Nagpur divisions were transferred to Bombay state. In 1960, the Bombay State was partitioned into Maharashtra & Gujarat. In 2000, the eastern portion of Madhya Pradesh was split off to become the new state of Chhattisgarh.