Thursday, 23 June 2016

Ganga Jumuna Region of India called as Hindustan.

The Ganga Jumna Region also called as the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, the segment of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in western and southwestern Uttar Pradesh state, northeastern India. Having an area of about 23,360 square miles (60,500 square km), it lies between the Ganges (Ganga) and Yamuna rivers, west of the Upper Ganges Plain. The doab (river basin) is about 500 miles (800 km) in length and 60 miles (100 km) in width and consists of a wide trough between the Great Himalayas to the north and the Deccan plateau to the south. It was formed by sediment deposited by rivers flowing southward from the Himalayas.

During the Islamic period, the Turkish, Afghan and Iranian rulers referred to this region as "Hindustan" (Land of the Hindus). This term was later used to refer to the whole of India but even into the modern era, the dialect of Hindi-Urdu spoken in this region is called Hindustani, a term which is also used for the local music and culture.

The Ganga Jumna Region can be divided into three sections: upper, middle, and lower. The Upper Doab extends from Haridwar on the north to Aligarh to the south. It has a gentle slope and is crisscrossed by a number of streams. Secondary transverse slopes on older floodplains have developed in the Middle Doab. The topography flattens out in the Lower Doab, where the Sind, Betwa, and Ken streams run parallel to each other. Geologically, the whole region forms part of the alluvial Indo-Gangetic trough.

Some geographers subdivide the Indo-Gangetic Plain into several parts: the Sindh, Punjab, Doab, and Bengal regions. By another definition, the Indus-Ganga Plain is divided into two drainage basins by the Delhi Ridge; the western part consists of the Punjab Plain, and the eastern part consists of the Ganga–Brahmaputra drainage systems. This divide is only 300 meters above sea level, causing the perception that the Indus-Ganga Plain appears to be continuous between the two drainage basins.

The middle Ganga plain extends from the Yamuna River in the west to the state of West Bengal in the east. The lower Ganges plain and the Assam Valley are more verdant than the middle Ganga plain. The lower Ganga is centered in West Bengal, from which it flows into Bangladesh. After joining the Jamuna, a distributary of the Brahmaputra, both rivers from the Ganges Delta. The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet as the Yarlung Zangbo River and flows through Arunachal Pradesh and Assam, before crossing into Bangladesh.

The Indus-Ganga plain, also known as the "Great Plains," are large floodplains of the Indus and the Ganga–Brahmaputra river systems. They run parallel to the Himalaya Mountains, from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east and draining most of northern and eastern India. The plains encompass an area of 700,000 km² (270,000 mile²) and vary in width through their length by several hundred kilometers. The major rivers of this system are the Ganga and the Indus along with their tributaries; Yamuna, Gomti, Chambal, Beas, Ravi, Sutlej and Chenab.

The region has facilitated the repeated rise and expansion of various empires, including the Gupta Empire, Kanauj, Magadha, the Maurya Empire, the Mughal Empire and the Sultanate of Delhi. All of which had their demographic and political centers in the Indo-Gangetic plain.

During the Vedic and Epic eras of Indian history, this region was referred to as "Aryavarta" (Land of the Aryans) which was bordered on the west by the Indus River, on the east by Anga region of present-day easternmost part of Bihar and doorstep of Bengal and on the south of the Vindhya Mountain range.